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Green Energy Generators Reducing Wildlife Collisions

Almost everyone wants to see more renewable power generation, but the compromise between conservationists and power companies can be an uneasy one. Just recently, a prairie dog colony was evicted from a site in East Flagstaff, while turbines at the pending wind power generation site near Williams may kill birds and bats, as well as displace other wildlife. What can be done to reduce impacts of renewable power generation on wildlife?

“Solar energy in itself is not unique in terms of impacts on wildlife – it’s like any other development,” said Steven Gotfried, Renewables Spokesperson for APS. “You need your energy generation system – renewable or otherwise – as close as possible to the location where it’s needed.” Gotfried explains that solar panels also work best with a stable surface on which to mount them. Therefore, there was no option to let the prairie dogs coexist with the new APS solar site at the Doney Park site. After the site has been graded, a surface of cinders or composite will be added to allow vehicular access and to keep the fenced in land around the panels vegetation-free as a fire prevention precaution.

While some believe the prairie dog relocation can be seen as an example of a downside to solar power, it should be noted that APS paid for the relocation, despite the fact that there was no legal requirement for them to do so, says Karin Wadsack. She’s a consultant on renewable energy and environmental policy at NAU’s Landsward Institute, as well as working for EN3 Professionals, LLC a local environmental and civil engineering firm consulting for this latest APS solar project. Wadsack explains that the installation has many positive aspects. APS originally purchased the 10-acre parcel east of town as a location for a new electric power substation, but only needed two acres for that and so decided to add a community solar generation project to the site. It’s a pilot program partly funded by U.S. Department of Energy, designed to help understand the impact on power quality and reliability of the local grid where there’s a significant contribution from solar. As well as the bank of solar panels, the “Doney Park Renewable Energy” project will also see APS “borrowing” rooftop space to install panels at 200 nearby residences. Homeowners won’t own panels, but will sign a 20-year agreement to have them on their roofs.

So why aren’t more panels being located on residential roofs, allowing prairie dogs and other wildlife to remain undisturbed? That’s mostly a result of cost – and other practicalities. According to the latest figures from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, residential roof top installations typically cost $6.50 per Kw of electricity generated, while utility-scale banks of panels only cost $4.20 per Kw. Not only are utility-scale schemes cheaper, but panels on individual roofs can pose more maintenance challenges – and some roofs are simply not appropriate for solar panels because they are shaded or face the wrong direction. Another factor is dealing with the variations in power flow from panels on customer roofs. How such variations impact the performance of the overall energy delivery system is not currently well understood, hence the need for studies such as the one in Doney Park.

Wind power can also have negative effects on wildlife – turbine blades are known to kill birds and bats. And while there hasn’t been much large-scale wind generation near Flagstaff so far, a new wind farm near Williams would change all that. A subsidiary of NextEra Energy Resources plans to install a wind farm at Perrin Ranch, 10 miles north of Williams just west of State Rte 64. With a generating capacity of 99 MW, it will be one of the largest wind energy project in the state. The plans for 62 wind turbines (each 405 feet high) have elicited complaints – with three of the turbine locations having been adjusted to mitigate effects on the viewshed and increase their distance from residences on the northern boundary. NextEra spokesman Steve Stengel says that their two main concerns are safety and good environmental stewardship and that the company tries to incorporate alternate turbine sites with every project when possible to allow maximum flexibility to accommodate environmental issues.

Mark Ogonowski, Urban Wildlife Planner with Arizona Game & Fish Department, is closely involved with the environmental planning at Perrin Ranch and elsewhere. He says that the principal instrument AZGFD and its regulatory counterpart, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service use is the recently developed Avian and Bat Protection Plan (or ABPP). Ogonowki says that it is vital to collect rigorous wildlife data work before construction, to help developers locate turbines wisely. AZGFD has been working collaboratively with Coconino County, NextEra and the consultants hired by the wind company to carry out wildlife monitoring, to ensure that the Perrin Ranch turbines aren’t near landscape features likely to attract wildlife, e.g. riparian habitats, steep cliffs and deep canyons, or corridors for raptor and bat migration. Concerns that California condors might use the area or bats might roost in Cataract Canyon (the only prominent landscape feature) have been addressed by surveys, which have found no evidence of either.

NextEra Energy is providing financial support for wildlife studies at the site – those findings will help Perrin Ranch and other future Arizona wind farms to minimize wildlife impacts. Research from other parts of the country has shown that there are strategies that can reduce turbine-caused bird and bat mortality. Clustering towers together (for example, away from prairie dog colonies) reduces raptor mortalities. Research on avian collisions with communications towers suggests that avoiding continuous night lighting on towers may also help stop bats and migrating birds from being attracted to turbines, while increasing the minimum wind speed at which turbines begin to rotate can significantly lower bat fatalities.

The evidence so far is that careful location choice is the key to minimizing adverse impacts of wind and solar energy development. And with such great potential for renewable energy in our region, the hope is that proper siting along with all other available measures will be used to keep renewable energy generation as green as possible. FBN

 

Photo:  Tish Bogan-Ozmun, President of the Board of Habitat Harmony

Photo taken by Tom Bean

 

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One Response to Green Energy Generators Reducing Wildlife Collisions

  1. CHAGANTI September 18, 2011 at 3:05 AM #

    WORLDS CHEAPEST ELECTRICITY cost per each MW 3 million US$ is for construction, machinery etc and generation cost just 10 Indian Paisa or 1/3 a cent per KWH or unit
    RAW MATERIAL IS FREE AND NO TRANSPORTATION CHARGES
    SMALL GRID IS SMART GRID IS MY CONCEPT FOR TRANSMISSION TOO
    METHOD:
    FULL TEXT
    Renewable energy is considered to be “environmentally” clean – meaning it is typically non-polluting example the application is water running in man made structures is my idea
    ‘Head’ is a measurement of water pressure or kinetic energy
    In dams the head is often proportional to the height of the water behind the dam (From top of the reservoir to the bottom of turbine tail release) because the powerhouse is to the very bottom of the head in the dam or bottom of the dam
    Head is used for make the water run faster and faster down and down with kinetic energy transferred from top of reservoir into turbine blades
    By increasing the height of the water level behind the dams increase the force of the falling and running water down the pen stock on the turbines blades, thereby increasing electrical generation capacity
    Low head dams are less than 30 feet tall and typically have generators smaller than 10 megawatts (MW), whereas high head dams are at least over 500 feet tall and have generators of at least 30 MW and more according to the water availability
    Dams store water as a source of fast, reliable and zero emission clean and green energy generation and they can serve as a base load source of electricity to link with variable generation of today’s fossil fuel and nuclear energy
    Rivers have water “pressure head” or the running water pressure to turn the turbine for electrical generation
    Kindly read my innovation or method (Text)

    KINDLY DO NOT COMPARE THIS RUN OF THE OCEAN POWER

    GENERATION TO PUMP STORAGE TECHNOLOGY

    THIS IS A KIND REQUEST ALWAYS KEEP THIS NOTE WHEN YOU READ

    THIS TEXT — THANK YOU

    IN THIS INNOVATION 3 HYDRO GENERATION PRINCIPLES ARE IN CORPORATED TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY (1) RESERVOIR GENERATION PRINCIPLES ARE USED IN P1 POWER HOUSE: OCEAN IS A NATURAL DAM, P1 INLET IS INSIDE THE OCEAN THERE IS ELEVATION DROP FOR THE WATER TO FLOW DOWN P1 ACTING AS MASTER RESERVOIR (2) RUN OF THE RIVER OR KINETIC ENERGY HYDRAULICS ARE USED FOR POWER GENERATION FROM P2 TO P20 INDIVIDUAL AND INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS IS CALLED RUN OF THE OCEAN BECAUSE WATER RUNS FROM P2 TO P20 AS A RIVER 24 X 7 (3) PUMP STORAGE PRINCIPLES ARE USED FROM P20 TAIL RELEASE FROM MINUS 450 METERS TO ABOVE THE MAIN SEA LEVEL FOR THE OCEAN TO FLOW BACK INTO THE OCEAN TRAVELING MORE THAN 40 KMS,BECAUSE OUTLET (TAIL POND) IS 40 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM THE OCEAN. EACH RESERVOIR IS 2000 METERS LONG HAVING 150 DIAMETERS.
    KINDLY CALCULATE POWER GENERATED IN 20 INDEPENDENT AND INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIRS AND EACH INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR WILL HAVE ONE INDEPENDENT POWER GENERATION UNIT (1000 MW TURBINE) WITH POWER HOUSE
    P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9, P10, P11, P12, P13, P14, P15, P16, P17, P18, P19 & P20

    WHEN WATER GETS ACCUMULAED IN P1 MASTER RESERVOIR THIS ACCMUMELATED WATER IS MADE TO RUN IN THE 20 INDIVIDUAL POWER GENERATION TURBINES.
    ONE SECOND INFLOWS FROM P1 MASTER RESERVOIR 96000 CUBIC METERS WATER PER SECOND RUNS DOWN AND PASSES THROUGH 20 INDEPENDENT POWER GENERATION UNITS AND THEN THIS 96000 CUBIC METERS PER SECOND WATER FALLS DOWN AS FREE WATER FALL INTO THE TAIL POND.
    ONE SECOND TAIL RELEASE 96000 CUBIC METERS PER SECOND WATER IS PUMPED OUT ABOVE THE MAIN SEA LEVEL.
    HERE KINDLY NOTE WHEN ONE SECOND WATER i.e. 96000 CUBIC METERS WATER FLOWS OUT FROM P1 MASTER RESERVOIR AND IMPINGES THE P1 GENERATOR-TURBINE THEN THE TAIL RELEASE WATER FLOWS DOWN THE GRADIENT AND GETS COLLECTED INSIDE THE P2 RESERVOIR. P2 RESERVOIR IS 2000 METERS LONG AND HAVING 150 METERS DEPTH.
    P1 TURBINE TAIL RELEASE WILL GET FILLED INTO THE P2 INDIPENDENT RESERVOIR TAKING LOT OF TIME, WHEN P2 RESERVOIR IS COMPLETELY FILLED THEN P2 RESERVOIR OUTLET (40 DIAMETER) GATES ARE OPENED AND WATER RUNS INSIDE THE P2 TURBINE TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY IN THIS MANNER WATER RUNS DOWN FROM RESERVOIR TO RESERVOIR TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY FROM 20 INDEPENDENT AND INDIVIDUAL GENERATOR-TURBINES ARRANGED ONE AFTER ANOTHER IN CASCADING ARRANGEMENT. KINDLY CALCULATE THE EXACT TIME FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIR TO GET FILLED AND WHEN ALL RESERVOIRS GET FILLED THEN JUST ONE SECOND WATER IS PUMPED OUT FROM THE 20TH POWER HOUSE TAIL RELEASE. IN THIS CONCEPT THERE IS JUST ONE INLET AND ONE OUTLET SO WATER HAS TO TRAVEL 40 KILOMETERS AND WILL FINALLY COMEOUT FROM THE VERY LAST TURBINE AND THIS ONE SECOND TAIL RELEASE IS PUMPED OUT EVERY SECOND FROM MINUS 450 METERS TO ABOVE THE MAIN SEA LEVEL.

    RUN OF THE RIVER HYDRAULICS ARE USED FOR POWER GENERATION
    IN CASCADING DESIGN
    DEAR SIR,
    THIS IS FOR EACH INDEPENDENT AND INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIR
    Where h = water depth, A = cross-sectional area, B = surface width, S0 = bottom
    slope; Sf = friction slope; V = velocity, g = gravity acceleration and = velocity of the
    moving abscissa x. Integration of Eq . (1c) leads to the law x = x(a,t): if = 0

    SUBJECT: RUN OF THE OCEAN
    {Running water is used to generate power and turbine is in the shape of a revolving garden gate model majority of the running water @ 42 meters / second velocity is hitting the side of the turbine blade(15 Meters Diameters) for the turbine to spin and water is passing in a straight line from the tail release down into the following reservoir arranged in cascading type, one after another}

    RUN OF THE RIVER CONCEPT IS CONVERTED INTO RUN OF THE

    OCEAN I HAVE DESIGNED THIS CONCEPT CALLED “RUN OF THE

    OCEAN”

    AND I HAVE DESIGNED CASCADING MARINE HYDRO ELECTRICAL

    GENERATION USING THE REGULAR HYDRAULIC LAWS FOR HYDRO

    POWER GENERATION TO GENERATE GREEN AND CLEAN

    ELECTRICITY AND THE APPLICATION IS OCEAN WATER IN MAN

    MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER.

    ONE TIME INVESTMENT

    WITH THE DEGREE OF INCLINATION FOR THE WATER TO FLOW

    THE DESIGN OF THE PROJECT CHANGES, THE STEEPER THE FLOW

    LESS IS THE DISTANCE OF THE UNDERGROUND RIVER EXAMPLE

    WITH AT LEAST 1 DEGREE OF SLOPE THE RIVER IS 40 KMS LONG AND

    WITH AT LEAST 20 DEGREE SLOPE THE RIVER WILL BE JUST 5 KMS

    LONG GENERATING THE SAME AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY

    AS SEEN IN P –1 POWER HOUSE GENERATOR-TURBINE

    OCEANS WILL NEVER RUN AND I AM THE ONLY PERSON IN THIS

    WORLD TO DESIGN A CONCEPT IN WHICH OCEANS RUN BELOW THE

    MSL IN MAN MADE STRUCTURES. “EVERY THING IS MAN MADE”

    METHOD:

    FIRST SELECT A GOOD PLACE FOR DIGGING A UNDERGROUND RIVER

    NEAR THE OCEAN SIDE OR THE WATER BODY
    (NO HARM TO MARINE LIFE)
    PLACE A 250 DIAMETER CIRCLE PIPE RING UNDER A 20 METERS DEEP

    OCEAN

    DIG A 100-METER DEEP AND 250 DIAMETER WELL SLANTINGLY

    SLOPPILY DOWN FROM THE BOTTOM OF 20 METERS DEEP OCEAN

    BED

    THE WELL IS 250 METERS WIDE (DIA) AND 100 METERS DEEP

    “THE WELL IS NOT 100% VERTICAL” BUT SLIGHTLY SLANTING

    THE WELL WILL COME OUT OF THE BEACH SIDE AND THE DIGGING

    SHOULD BE TOWARDS THE CITY OR THE VILLAGE WHERE PEOPLE

    LIVE. THE UNDERGROUND RIVER RUNS JUST OPPOSITE THE OCEAN

    THIS WELLS BOTTOM WILL TOUCH –100 (MINUS 100) METERS

    BELOW THE MAIN SEA LEVEL AND UNDER THE EARTH

    AT THE WELLS BOTTOM 12 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS

    ESTABLISHED NATURALLY BECAUSE THE WELLS INLET IS IN THE

    20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER AND THE WATER RUNS DOWN FROM

    THE MAIN SEA LEVEL TO MINUS 100 METERS BELOW THE MAIN SEA

    LEVEL (20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER + 100 METERS WELL)

    THE WELL IS COMING OUT OF THE BEACH AREA AND THE WELLS

    OUTLET IS ESTABLISHED AT MINUS 100 METERS IN SOLID GROUND

    FROM THE WELLS BOTTOM SIDE (250 DIAMETER)

    A MAN MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER IS DUG SLANTINGLY DOWN TO

    REACH MINUS 450 METERS UNDER THE EARTH

    THE TOTAL LENGTH OF THE MAN MADE RIVER IS 40 KILOMETERS

    LONG, 150 METERS WIDE AND 150 METERS DEEP

    (RIVER STARTING FROM – 120 METERS BOTTOM SIDE TO – 450 METERS FULL OF RUNNING WATER IN A STRAIGHT PATH VERY BIG KINETIC ENERGY THE RIVER IS HAVING A ANTI CORROSIVE FIBER GLASS PADDING TO REDUCE FRICTIONAL LOSS WHEN THE WATER RUNS DOWN THE PATH)

    THE 250 DIAMETER WELL HAVING 120 METERS DEPTH WILL ACT AS A

    “HYDRAULIC HEAD” FOR THE UNDERGROUND MAN MADE RIVER

    AT THE RIVER INLET 12 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS ESTABLISHED

    NATURALLY 24 X 7 ALL THE YEAR

    ON THIS SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN MAN MADE UNDERGROUND

    RIVER 20 INDEPENDENT POWER GENERATION STATIONS ARE

    CONSTRUCTED IN CASCADING TYPE ONE AFTER ANOTHER

    THERE IS A GAP OF 2 KILOMETERS IN BETWEEN TWO INDEPENDENT

    POWER GENERATION STATIONS

    WHEN WATER IS RELEASED FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL AND

    ENTER THE UNDERGROUND RIVER INLET THE RELEASED WATER

    WILL RUN 2 KILOMETERS LONG AND OCCUPY 150 METERS WIDTH

    AND 150 METERS DEPTH WITH FULL OF RUNNING WATER

    THIS 2 KILOMETERS LONG MAN MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER IS

    CONVERTED AS A MAN MADE RESERVOIR CALLED THE P1

    RESERVOIR

    P1 IS THE “MASTER RESERVOIR”.

    HERE THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE WILL BE 27

    (20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER +100 METERS DEEP WELL + 150
    DIAMETER UNDERGROUND RIVER TOTAL 270 METERS)

    THIS RESERVOIR DIMENSIONS WILL BE INLET 150 DIAMETERS AND

    OUTLET 40 DIAMETERS AND WILL LOOK LIKE A MISSILE.

    THERE WILL BE 20 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS ON THE 40

    KILOMETERS LONG SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN RIVER

    ALL 20 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS WILL BE IDENTICAL i.e.

    IN METERS ONLY (kindly arrange p1 reservoir outlet to p2 reservoir inlet)
    The system follows like the railway compartments one after another
    PI RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    P2 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    P3 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    P4 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET,
    P19 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    And to the last
    P20 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET

    THE CONCEPT DESIGN IS INLET 150 DIAMETERS AND OUTLET 40

    DIAMETERS. POWER GENERATION IS DONE IN THE PATH OF

    FLOWING WATER COMING OUT OF THE 40 DIAMETER OUTLETS

    WATER WHEN RELEASED FROM 40 DIAMETER OUTLET THE

    RELEASED WATER WILL HAVE A WATER PRESSURE HEAD TO

    IMPINGE EACH (GARDEN GATE MODEL) TURBINE INDEPENDENTLY

    KINDLY UNDERSTAND EACH INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR DIMENSIONS

    AND UNDERSTAND THE VELOCITY OF THE RELEASED WATER @ OF

    42 METERS PER SECOND IS THE VELOCITY FROM EACH RESERVOIR

    OUTLET BECAUSE WATER IS RUNNING DOWN AND DOWN FROM –120

    METERS, WELLS BOTTOM SIDE TO REACH MINUS 450 METERS

    BELOW THE MAIN SEA LEVEL

    KINDLY NOTE THE OCEAN OR THE WATER BODY WILL BE 450

    METERS ABOVE THE TAIL POND AT 40 KILOMETERS DISTANCE

    WATER IS CONTINUOUSLY RUNNING DOWN STRAIGHT FROM THE

    MAIN SEA LEVEL TO MINUS 450 METERS THE WATER HAS TO RUN 40

    KILOMETERS LENGTH AND THE RUNNING WATER IS PASSING

    THROUGH 20 INDEPENDENT POWER HOUSES BEFORE THE WATER

    WILL FALL AS A FREE WATER FALL INTO THE TAIL POND SITUATED

    AT — 450 METERS BELOW MSL

    THERE ARE NO TWISTS AND TURNS FOR THE RUNNING WATER

    TOTAL DEPTH 450 METERS (MSL TO –450 METERS UNDER EARTH)

    POINT 1)
    WELL 120 METERS DEEP

    (HYDRAULIC HEAD 120 METERS: 20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER +

    100 METER DEEP SLANTINGLY WELL)

    POINT 2)

    UNDERGROUND MAN MADE RIVER 150 DIAMETER RUNNING DOWN

    FROM THE VERY BOTTOM OF THE WELL (HYDRAULIC HEAD 120Mtrs)

    FROM –120 METERS TO — 450 METERS IS THE SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY

    DOWN MAN MADE RIVER

    TOTAL 330 METERS SLOPE IS THE BALANCE IN WHICH 150

    DIAMETERS RIVER RUNS DOWN FROM – 120 METERS TO – 450

    METERS TO FALL INTO THE TAIL POND

    WATER WILL NEVER RISE THE ABOVE DESCRIBED

    DIMENSIONS OF THE UNDERGROUND RIVER

    NOTE:
    (FROM “BOTTOM SIDE OF THE WELL’’150 DIAMETERS

    MAN MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER FULL OF RUNNING WATER

    RUNNING DOWN AND DOWN LIKE WATER RUNNING DOWN THE

    SLOPE OF A 450 METERS TALL MOUNTAIN

    (FROM TOP TO BASE OF THE MOUNTAIN)

    ABOVE THE UNDERGROUND RIVER 120 METERS IS THE TOTAL

    HEIGHT (HYDRAULIC HEAD) EVER GREEN 12 ATMOSPHERIC

    PRESSURE AND IN THE ENTIRE CONCEPT (P1 TO P20 AND IN THE TAIL

    POND) WATER WILL NEVER TOUCH THE MAIN SEA LEVEL

    With energy needs rising and ever-growing requirements for cleaner energy sources, our company is dedicated to extracting renewable energy from our environment – cleanly, efficiently, and appropriately. This concept illustrate our creative solutions for green energy generation.
    · There is a significant altitude drop, where the water comes into the “master” p1 reservoir before being distributed to other reservoirs p2 to p20 arranged in cascading manner, rushing over a drop of few hundred feet at every reservoir, Operating at the high plant factor of 60% requires durable machines and accurate control equipment and less people.
    · This concept depends on automatic system combinations with SCADA(supervisory control and data acquisition, SCADA systems and software permit them to analyze all these issues, related to capacity, transmission and distribution, and respond effectively to prevailing market conditions in both the wholesale and retail markets.) usages are specifically geared for high usage and profitable operations. The fully automatic station will be trouble-free. All are reviewed on a levelized basis, taking into account capital costs, fuel costs, O&M costs, financing costs etc

    P1 CALCULATIONS:

    Always p1 power generation is for sale

    Calculation Of Hydro Power

    Before embarking on any hydropower generation project it is essential to survey the proposed

    Site to calculate the amount of available hydropower.

    The two vital factors to consider are the flow and the head of the stream or river.

    The flow is the volume of water, which can be captured and re-directed to turn the turbine

    Generator, and the head is the distance the water will fall on its way to the generator. The larger

    the flow – i.e. the more water there is, and the higher the head – i.e. the higher the distance the

    water falls – the more energy is available for conversion to electricity. Double the flow and

    double the power, double the head and double the power again.

    A low head site has a head of below 10 meters. In this case you need to have a good

    volume of water flow if you are to generate much electricity. A high head site has a head of

    above 20 meters. In this case you can get away with not having a large flow of water,

    because gravity will give what you have an energy boost.

    The key equation to remember is the following:

    Power = Head x Flow x Gravity

    where power is measured in Watts, head in meters, flow in liters per second, and acceleration

    due to gravity in meters per second per second.
    The acceleration due to gravity is approximately 9.81 meters per second per second – i.e. each

    second an object is falling, its speed increases by 9.81 meters per second (until it hits its

    terminal velocity).

    Therefore it is very simple to calculate how much hydro power you can generate.
    Let’s say for example that you have a flow of 20 liters per second with a head of 12 meters. Put

    those figures in the equation and you will see that:

    12 x 20 x 9.81 = 2,354 Watts

    Below is our automated hydro-power calculator. Simply enter the head in meters, and the flow

    rate in liters per second, and the calculator will work out the amount of power carried by the

    water and the amount of power which can realistically be extracted from it to generate

    electricity

    Head: 150 m (meters), Flow Rate: 96000000 (liters per second)
    Hydro Power: (Watts) 1412640000000
    At 60% system efficiency (Watts) of generated electricity 847584000000 ( in red) please

    consider this per hour generation

    Always p2 to p20 power generation is for pump consumption

    CALCULATIONS FOR P2 TO P20 i.e. 19 individual reservoirs

    I have taken just 40 meters head for each reservoir

    (Inlet 150 m and outlet 40 m reservoir dimensions)

    Simply enter the head in meters, and the flow rate in liters per second, and the calculator will

    work out the amount of power carried by the water and the amount of power which can

    realistically be extracted from it to generate electricity

    Head: 40 m (meters), Flow Rate: 96000000 (liters per second)
    Hydro Power: (Watts) 376704000000
    At 60% system efficiency (Watts) of generated electricity 226022400000 (in red) please

    consider this per hour generation

    P2 RESERVOIR POWER HOUSE CALCULATION 226022400000 X 19 RESERVOIRS POWER

    HOUSES CALCULATIONS WILL BE 4294425600000 Watts used for pump consumption only

    Real World Hydro Power Calculation

    So in the example above a 12-meter head with 20 liters per second flow rate equated to just

    over 2.3kW of available power. Sadly it is not possible to tap all of that power – nothing is 100%

    efficient. However, hydro power turbine generators are very efficient when compared to wind

    turbine generators and solar panels.

    Efficiencies of around 70% can be expected which is to say that 70% of the hydraulic energy of

    the flowing water can be turned into mechanical energy spinning the turbine generator. The

    remaining 30% is lost. Energy is again lost in converting the mechanical energy into electrical

    energy (electricity) and so at the end of the day you can expect a complete system efficiency of

    around 50-60%.

    In our previous example where 2.3kW of power was available – we can therefore expect to

    generate around 1.1 to1.4kW of electricity.

    These same calculations are valid whether you are planning a tiny Pico or Micro Hydro Power

    system or the next Three Gorges Dam Hydro Project.

    NOW THE PUMP CALCULATIONS FOR NET HEAD – 450 METERS

    TOTAL PUMP NET HEAD IS MINUS 450 METERS (TAIL POND AT — 450 METERS BELOW MSL)

    Hydraulic Pump Power

    The ideal hydraulic power to drive a pump depends on the mass flow rate, the liquid density and the

    Differential height

    – either it is the static lift from one height to an other, or the friction head loss

    – component of the system

    – – can be calculated as

    Ph = q ρ g h / (3.6 106) (1)

    where

    Ph = power (kW)

    q = flow capacity (m3/h)

    ρ = density of fluid (kg/m3)

    g = gravity (9.81 m/s2)

    h = differential head (m)

    Shaft Pump Power

    The shaft power – the power required transferred from the motor to the shaft of the pump – depends on

    the efficiency of the pump and can be calculated as

    Ps = Ph / η (2)

    where

    Ps = shaft power (kW)

    η = pump efficiency

    345600000 q – flow capacity (m3/h) (96000m3/sec X 3600 SECONDS PER HOUR)
    ρ – density of fluid (kg/m3)
    g – gravity (m/s2)
    450 METERS h – differential head (m)
    η – pump efficiency 60%

    POWER CONSUMED FOR LIFTING 345600000 CUBIC METERS Per hour OF OCEAN WATER TO — 450 METERS WILL BE:

    P2 to p20 reservoirs power generation used for pump consumption

    HYDRAULIC POWER : 423792000 (KW) 568305072 (bhp)

    SHAFT POWER : 706320000(KW) 947175120 (bph)

    THERE IS 1.3 CUBIC BILLION KILOMETERS OF WATER ON THIS

    PLANET

    JUST USE AS FREE RAW MATERIAL AND SAY NO TO FOSSIL

    FUELS FOR EVER IS MY CONCEPT OR IDEA

    IF WE THINK BIG WE CAN THINK SMALL AND IF WE DO BIG WE

    CAN DO SMALL

    POINTS TO CONSIDER:

    SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS

    Creates economic activity in remote areas

    Project co-ownership opportunities created for first nations

    Business venture opportunities created for first nations and local
    Community

    Local tax revenue generated

    Construction and long-term jobs created

    ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

    Zero GHG emissions No pollution or wastes created
    Displaces energy produced by oil, gas, coal etc

    ENERGY PRODUCED FROM A RENEWABLE RESOURCE SEA

    WATER REQUIRED NO FUEL THUS CALLED “CLEAN POWER”

    No acquiring of lands for construction of large dams

    No silt removal as seen in dams.

    Simple construction and requires less maintenance very robust

    and has long life

    LOCAL GENERATION AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

    ONLY LOCAL GRID “SMALL GRID” SMART GRID.

    NO TRANSMISSION LOSSES

    COST OF GENERATION VERY LESS AFTER THE REPAYMENT OF THE LOAN JUST FREE ELECTRICITY FOR LIFE TIME

    NO PURCHASE OF RAW MATERIAL

    NO TRANSPORTATION CHARGE

    WILL GENERATE CARBON CREDITS

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION LOCAL AREAS WILL GET 24 X 7 FREE WATER SUPPLY

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION LOCAL FARMING COMMUNITY WILL GET FREE ELECTRICITY 24 X 7

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL VILLAGES NEAR TO THE GENERATION AREAS FREE STREET LIGHTS

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL PEOPLE BELOW POVERTY LINE WILL GET FREE ELECTRICITY

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL FAMILIES WILL GET 20 UNITS PER MONTH FREE ELECTRICITY FOR COOKING THERE BY NO USAGE OF GAS. SEPARATE METER FOR THE 20 UNITS.

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS WILL BE CHEAP

    RAILWAYS CAN RUN ON ELECTRICITY AND ENCOURAGE TRAM SYSTEM FOR TRANSPORTATION IN THE LOCAL AREAS

    HYBRID VEHICLES WILL RUN ON ELECTRICITY BY TRACTION OR BY BATTERY

    CABLE CARS WILL BE HANDY IN HILLY AREAS

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ELECTRIC BUNKS WILL SUPPLY ELECTRICITY AND REPLACE PETROL BUNKS THERE BY NO DEPENDENCY ON FOSSIL FUELS AND ON OTHER COUNTRIES TOO

    WILL STOP THE IMPORTS OF CRUDE OIL AND WILL SAVE FOREIGN EXCHANGE CURRENCY

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION FOOD PRODUCTION WILL INCREASE AND HORTICULTURE WILL DEVELOP IN EVERY VILLAGE

    DAIRY AND FISHERIES WILL INCREASE IN EVERY VILLAGE
    HAND LOOM INDUSTRIES WILL DEVELOP IN LOCAL AREAS AND TRADITIONAL DESIGNS WILL GET ENCOURAGEMENT

    ALL FACTORIES WILL RUN ON 6 HOURS SHIFT AND WILL WORK 4 SHIFTS A DAY CREATING MORE EMPLOYMENTS ALL ALONG THE COAST

    MAJOR AND HEAVY INDUSTRIES WILL BE SHIFTED TO COASTAL AREAS TO GET HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICITY THERE BY NO USAGE OF FOSSIL FUEL’S AND NO POLLUTION AND GLOBAL WARMING

    IMPROVEMENT IN DESALINATION PLANTS AND DRINKING WATER SUPPLY TO ALL LOCAL COMMUNITIES 24 X 7 ON THE COASTAL BELT

    WHEN LOAD FACTOR, PEOPLE + ELECTRICITY IS SHIFTED TO THE COASTAL AREAS ALL CITIES WILL BE NEAT AND CLEAN

    IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTS

    ALL COASTAL AREAS WILL GET MANY ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TYPES OF EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING UNITS, BATTERY MANUFACTURING UNITS THERE BY IMPROVEMENT IN DAY-TO-DAY LIVING ACTIVITIES

    TO KNOW THE TECHNOLOGY TAKE A PENCIL AND PAPER AND DRAW THE CONCEPT IMAGE TO UNDERSTAND THE INNOVATION.

    FIRST DRAW A PIT 450 METERS DEEP DUG UNDER THE EARTH AND QUITE OPPOSITE THE OCEAN.

    THIS TECHNOLOGY DEPENDS ON A VERY SIMPLE PROCEDURE AND THIS PROCEDURE IS DIG A PIT( 450 METERS DEEP BELOW THE MAIN SEA LEVEL) THIS PIT CAN BE AT LEAST FOR 40 KILOMETERS LONG AND AT LEAST 500 METERS WIDE, THIS IS THE FIRST STEP.

    INLET WILL ALWAYS BE DIRECTLY CONNECTED INTO THE OCEAN.

    STEP NUMBER TWO UNDERSTAND THE PLACEMENT OF A 150 DIAMETER PRE-FABRICATED PIPE DIAGONALLY SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN FROM ONE CORNER TO ANOTHER CORNER OF THE 450 METERS DEEP PIT i.e.” FROM TOP TO BOTTOM SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN”.

    THE 150 DIAMETER PIPE SHOULD BE PLACED FROM THE MAIN SEA LEVEL FROM ONE SIDE OF THE PIT (OCEAN SIDE) TO THE BOTTOM OF THE OTHER SIDE OF THE 450 METERS DEEP PIT UNDER THE GROUND 40 KMS AWAY FROM THE OCEAN TOWARDS CITY SIDE.

    THE TOTAL LENGTH OF THE PIT IS 40 KILOMETERS AND THE PRE-FABRICATED 150 DIAMETER PIPE SHOULD ALSO BE 40 KILOMETERS LONG.

    THE PIPE SLIDES DOWN THE ELEVATION DROP SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY AND DIAGONALLY DOWN FROM ONE END (INLET) TO ANOTHER END OF THE PIT (OUTLET).

    INLET IS PLACED FROM THE MAIN SEA LEVEL, BODY OF THE PIPE STRETCHING TO 40 KILOMETERS LENGTH (DIAGONALLY) AND OUTLET OF THE PIPE TOUCHING MINUS 450 METERS BOTTOM SIDE OF THE PIT.

    THE 150 DIAMETERS PIPE IS HAVING A ELEVATION DROP AND A MAN MADE GRADIENT AT-LEAST 1 TO 20 DEGREE ANGLE FOR THE WATER TO FLOW DIAGONALLY SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN WITH THE HELP OF THE GRAVITY FROM TOP OF ONE SIDE (MSL) TO THE VERY BOTTOM OF THE OTHER SIDE OF THE 450 METERS DEEP PIT HAVING 40 KILOMETERS LENGTH.

    THE PIT WILL START FROM THE OCEAN AND WILL GO OPPOSITE THE OCEAN TOWARDS THE CITY SIDE.

    AS THE 150 DIAMETERS PIPE SLIDES DIAGONALLY SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN, EARTH IS FILLED UNDER THE EMPTY PLACES OF THE UNDER SIDE OF THE PIPE SO THAT THE PIPE IS HAVING STABILITY.

    WATER WILL RUN DOWN THE ENTIRE LENGTH OF THE PIPE STARTING FROM THE MAIN SEA LEVEL, IN THE ENTIRE BODY OF 150 DIAMETER OF THE 40 KILOMETERS LONG PIPE TOUCHING MINUS 450 METERS BOTTOM THE OUTLET WILL BE 40 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM THE OCEAN.

    THE ENTIRE 150 DIAMETERS PIPE WILL BE FULL OF RUNNING WATER AND THE WATER COMES FROM THE OCEAN BECAUSE INLET IS IN THE OCEAN.

    IN THIS CONCEPT OCEAN IS CONSIDERED AS A NATURAL DAM OR A RESERVOIR.

    IN THE 150 DIAMETER PIPE , 20 INDEPENDENT MISSILE SHAPED RESERVOIRS ARE CONSTRICTED AND ARE ARRANGED IN CASCADING ARRANGEMENT.

    EACH RESERVOIR WILL BE 2000 METERS LONG, i.e. INLET OF THE RESERVOIR WILL BE 150 DIAMETERS AND RESERVOIR BODY 2000 METERS LONG AND OUTLET IS 40 DIAMETERS THERE BY THE SHAPE WILL BE A MISSILE TYPE.

    EACH RESERVOIR WILL HAVE A INDEPENDENT POWER GENERATION STATION OUTSIDE OF THE 40 DIAMETERS AND IN THE PATH OF THE FLOWING WATER TO GENERATE CLEAN AND GREEN ELECTRICITY FROM A 1000 MEGA WATT GARDEN GATE TYPE GENERATOR-TURBINE.

    AS EACH INDIVIDUAL INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR INLET 150 DIAMETERS ,BODY 2000 METERS LONG AND OUTLET OF THE RESERVOIR WILL BE 40 METERS (20 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS ONE AFTER ANOTHER DIAGONALLY SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN)

    KIND NOTE:
    150 DIAMETER INLET P1 RESERVOIR OF THE “VERY FIRST INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR” WILL BE INSIDE THE OCEAN.

    THE OUTLET OF THE FIRST INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR 40 DIAMETERS WILL BE ATTACHED TO THE 150 DIAMETERS INLET OF THE SECOND INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR AND THE OUTLET OF THE 2 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR WILL BE ATTACHED TO THE INLET OF THE THIRD INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR, LIKE WISE EACH INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR OUTLET WILL BE ATTACHED TO THE FOLLOWING INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR INLET.

    THIS PROCEDURE IS COMPLETED TILL 20 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS ARE ATTACHED ONE AFTER ANOTHER IN CASCADING TYPE DIAGONALLY ARRANGED.

    AS DESCRIBED EARLIER THAT WATER WILL ENTER THE VERY FIRST RESERVOIR (MASTER RESERVOIR:P1) FROM THE OCEAN AND WILL FILL THE ENTIRE 2 KILOMETERS LONG INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR COMPLETELY AND WHEN WATER IS RELEASED FROM THE VERY FIRST P1 RESERVOIR 40 DIAMETER OUTLET WATER RUNS INTO THE VERY FIRST GENERATOR-TURBINE ARRANGED IN THE VERY FIRST POWER HOUSE WILL BE A 1000 MEGAWATT AND 96000 CUBIC METERS OCEAN WATER PER SECOND WILL FLOW OUT TO IMPINGE 24 X 7
    P = HEAD X FLOW X GRAVITY X EFFICIENCY = KW ELECTRICITY GENERATED FOR ONE HOUR = KWH.

    EACH INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR WILL HAVE 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET SO WATER ACCUMULATED IN 2000 METERS LONG RESERVOIR BODY WILL HAVE 150 DIAMETERS RUNNING WATER AND THIS 150 METERS DEEP WATER WILL ACT AS HEAD FOR EACH INDEPENDENT AND INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIR.

    ALL 20 INDEPENDENT AND INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIRS WILL HAVE 150 METERS DEEP WATER FLOWING FROM ONE INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR TO ANOTHER.

    SO, P= 150 METERS HEAD FOR EACH INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR X 96000 CUBIC METERS PER SECOND WILL BE THE FLOW INTO

    EACH INDEPENDENT 1000 MEGAWATT GENERATOR-TURBINE X 9.81 IS THE GRAVITY X 60% EFFICIENCY = KW,84758400 KWH PER ONE HOUR GENERATION.
    FROM EACH INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR 84758400 KWH GENERATED X 20 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS = 1695168000 KWH OF CLEAN AND GREEN ELECTRICITY GENERATED FROM 20 INDEPENDENT POWER HOUSES FOR EVERY ONE HOUR.

    ONE HOUR GENERATION 1695168000 KWH X 24 HOURS WILL GENERATE = 40684032000 KWH OF CLEAN AND GREEN ELECTRICITY EVERY DAY FROM 20 INDEPENDENT AND INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIRS COLLECTIVE ELECTRICITY.
    KINDLY NOTE:

    ONE SECOND INLET WATER AND ONE SECOND OUTLET PUMP DISCHARGE WILL ALWAYS BE THE SAME AND WATER IN ALL 20 INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIRS WILL BE AS IT IS AND WILL NOT BE PUMPED OUT.

    96000 CUBIC METERS PER SECOND OCEAN WATER WILL COME INTO THE INLET FROM THE OCEAN AND WILL TRAVEL ALL THE 40 KILOMETERS LONG RIVER AND WILL IMPINGE 20 INDEPENDENT 1000 MW GENERATOR-TURBINE AND WILL FLOW OUT FROM THE VERY LAST TURBINE TAIL RELEASE WILL FALL INTO THE TAIL POND AND FROM THE TAIL POND JUST 96000 CUBIC METERS PER SECOND OF OCEAN WATER IS PUMPED OUT (MINUS 450 METERS TO TOP OF THE MAIN SEA LEVEL) SO THAT THE PUMPED OUT WATER WILL FLOW BACK INTO THE OCEAN ONCE AGAIN.

    THE PUMPED OUT WATER 96000 CUBIC METERS PER SECOND WILL FLOW OUT AND WILL RUN MORE THAN 40 KILOMETERS TO JOIN THE OCEAN.

    THERE ARE INDEPENDENT ADVANTAGES FROM THE FLOWING WATER AND HERE TOO THE ELEVATION DROP COUNTS TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY BECAUSE PUMPED OUT WATER IS HAVING KINETIC ENERGY. THE SAME AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY IS GENERATED HERE TOO.

    THIS CONCEPT IS HAVING TWO TIRE RIVER FORMATIONS.
    ONE RIVER RUNS DOWN FROM THE MAIN SEA LEVEL TO MINUS 450 METERS BELOW THE MAIN SEA LEVEL AND ONE MORE RIVER RUNS FROM 210 METERS ABOVE THE MAIN SEA LEVEL TO THE MAIN SEA LEVEL.

    POWER IS GENERATED FROM THIS TWO RIVERS.

    EACH RIVER IS AT LEAST 40 KILOMETERS LONG HAVING 20 RESERVOIRS

    BOTH RIVERS (THE FIRST RIVER WATER RUNS DOWN BY THE LAW OF GRAVITY AND THE SECOND RIVER WATER RUNS DOWN BY THE PUMPED OUT WATER) ARE DESIGNED FOR CASCADING ELECTRICAL GENERATION

    BECAUSE OF THE MAN MADE GRADIENT AND ELEVATION DROP.

    THIS CONCEPT CAN BE DESIGNED IN THE EARTH, ON THE EARTH AND

    ABOVE THE EARTH AS WELL AS IN THE WATER BODY, ON THE WATER

    BODY AND ABOVE THE WATER BODY

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